Water radiators have a simple principle of operation: water heated to the desired temperature is supplied through pipes from the boiler to the building. Through the heating system, water is distributed throughout the premises.
Types of water heating radiators
Products can be made in the form of sections or panels. For the production of steel, aluminum, cast iron. Design features and production technology of models made from the same material may differ.
These heating devices are available in two types - panel and tubular.
Panel are a construction of several heating elements and convector fins. Such products have a low cost and good efficiency - about 75%, therefore, are very popular.
The advantages include:
- low inertia and high heat transfer;
- small volume of the heat carrier;
- environmental friendliness of the device, therefore often installed in public institutions (schools, hospitals, kindergartens);
- affordable price.
Of the minuses can be identified:
- corrosion on the internal surfaces of the radiator after the descent of water;
- convection causes fine dust to spread and can cause small drafts;
- It is not recommended to install in high-rise buildings, since steel radiators are very sensitive to accidental sudden jumps in water pressure and may collapse.
Tubular radiators have the appearance of combined steel pipes along which hot water flows. The manufacture of such structures is more expensive than panel, which affects the price.
Aluminum water radiators
By production of products two methods of production are used: molding and extrusive.
In the technology of the first type used method of injection molding. In this case, the battery is obtained with wide channels for hot water and has strong thick walls. The system of sections allows you to add or remove items.
In the extrusion method, the vertical parts of the structure are extruded from an aluminum alloy on an extruder. It turns out a solid product in which it is impossible to change the number of sections.
Advantages of aluminum radiators:
- low weight makes assembly easier. No special devices are required for installation work;
- high heat transfer rate provides a leading place in the rating of batteries;
- the room is warming up for a short period;
- equipping the product with a thermostat increases its efficiency;
- water radiators look very original thanks to modern design.
Cast Iron Radiators
These models can be considered the ancestors of heating systems. Differ neat appearance. As a rule, the design of radiators is modest. They are characterized by reliability, long service life (about 50 years), and democratic prices.
The advantages of cast iron:
- does not give in to corrosion;
- the rooms warm up perfectly;
- metal keeps heat for a long time, which is important in case of possible shutdowns of heating.
Among the shortcomings can be identified:
- it takes time to warm up the walls of the radiator;
- solid weight makes it difficult to deliver products, you must ensure that they are securely fastened during installation;
- high sensitivity to water hammering (occurs when water pressure fluctuates).
Performance indicators: working pressure - from 9 to 12 bar, section heat capacity up to 160 W, maximum water temperature - 110 ° C.
The designs made in the style of "retro" look unusual. Exquisite art casting can turn a radiator of water heating into a real decoration of the room. However, these models are very expensive.
Bimetallic radiator heating
By production of similar models two metals are used. The design of the product contains a steel tubular core and an aluminum shell. Available sectional and solid radiators.
The main advantage of monolithic models is the ability to withstand pressure up to 100 atmospheres. The design is a strong steel base, covered with an aluminum sheath.
Two types of radiators are produced: with a tubular core along the entire length of the channels and a battery, where the channels are made of steel only in vertical sections. The first model is highly reliable, but you have to pay for it accordingly. The second is 20 percent cheaper, it gives off heat better, but it is more prone to corrosion.
- high heat emission;
- the ability to keep water hammer and pressure surges;
- simple installation and nice appearance;
- corrosion resistance.
- heat emission is less in comparison with aluminum models;
- high price.
Apartment buildings and high-floor offices are optimally suited for the installation of such radiators.
Having decided on the material and type of radiator, it is necessary to make sure that the power of the product is enough to heat the room. This parameter depends on several factors: the size of the room, the number of external walls and window openings, the type of house (brick, panel), the window frame material (plastic, wood).
If we take as a basis a room with a three-meter ceiling and window openings up to 1.5x1.8 square meters, then we can be guided by the following figures:
- for rooms with one window, power is required at 100 W / sq. m with one external wall and 120 W / sq. m with two external walls. If there are two windows in the room, then the power indices will be 120 and 130 W / sq.m respectively.
- if the windows of rooms "look" to the north, northeast, then the power level should be higher by 10%.
- in the case of mounting the battery in a deep open niche, the capacity should be 5% higher. And if the radiator closes a solid panel with two horizontal slits, then the parameter should be 15% more.
When there is no desire to bother, you can just take note that for heating 1.5-2 sq.m. Premises need one section of battery. In this case, of course, we must remember that the capacities of batteries of different materials are also different.
The approximate power of one section: cast iron - 80-150 W, aluminum - 190 W, bimetallic - 200 W.
More accurate information manufacturers usually indicate in the technical specifications.
The value of connectivity options cannot be underestimated. It is this factor that affects the heat transfer power of any model. There are two ways to connect pipes: one-way and two-way.
- The most common order is when pipes are connected from one side (typical of high-rise buildings). In this case, different schemes are used. If water is supplied in the upper part of the product and is displayed at the bottom, then the heat transfer capacity is 97%. In the opposite case (water comes from the bottom, and displayed from the top) the power is approximately 78%.
- In the case of two-way connection, two pipe layouts are used. When water is supplied through a pipe connected at the top, and is displayed at the bottom of the other side, one hundred percent heat transfer is ensured. If water is supplied from below and output from above, then 20% of power is lost.
This option is most rational to use for long models, as it provides uniform heat transfer along the entire length of the radiator.
Perhaps the bottom connection of both pipes. In this case, with a one-sided arrangement of pipes, power is reached within 78%, and with two-way connection - 88%. Such an installation is justified when installing structures installed under the floor.
Installation rules for radiators
The main requirement for installation of any kind is to ensure proper circulation of heated air. Therefore, during installation, the following conditions must be met:
- The distance from the sill / bottom of the niche to the battery should be at least 10 cm. At the same time, the gap between the wall and the battery should be no less than three-quarters of the radiator depth. Failure to comply with these standards will impede the flow of warm air into the room;
- during installation work it is important to maintain the correct level in relation to the floor. When placing the battery closer to the floor than 10 cm, the outflow of warm air will be degraded (room heating will deteriorate). If the distance is greater than 15 cm, there will be a large temperature difference below and above the room. The optimum is the gap between the floor and the battery of 12 cm;
- in case of installing a wall-mounted water radiator (not in a niche under the window, but next to it), the product should be fixed no closer than 20 cm. Otherwise, the air will circulate worse and behind the structure dust will accumulate;
- It is not always possible to fix the battery on the wall (panoramic windows or fragile walls). In such cases, floor radiators are installed. If possible, it is advisable to use additional wall brackets, as this will reduce the load on the floor.
Due to the varieties of heating systems, you can choose the model that is best suited for each room. If there are difficulties with the choice, then it is desirable to turn to specialists. In order not to freeze in the cold season and not receive surprises in the form of flowed sections, it is better to “measure out seven times” before you buy once.