If in your apartment there are constantly perceived odors and musty air, it means that ventilation is either absent or does not work. In addition to the presence of odors, which are harmless in themselves, poor air exchange is fraught with the fact that repairs in the apartment will have to be done more often, since mold spores quickly multiply in stagnant, moist air and then settle in the nooks in the form of fungi. In the kitchen, with poor exhaust on the ceiling and walls, particles of burning and grease settle, quickly nullifying the fresh renovation.
In the houses of the Khrushchev kitchen plan, usually small ones, another part of the area is eaten up by a vertical ventilation shaft. A mine is an engineering structure, the parameters of which are carefully calculated at the design stage of a house. It is a vertical box, originating in the basement and facing the roof. In the bathrooms and kitchens of each apartment there are ventilation grilles through which air enters the mine and is discharged outside.
The efficiency of the mine can be checked by bringing a sheet of paper to the grid. If the sheet is stuck to the grille, ventilation is working properly. If the paper does not hold at all - the ventilation is clogged, partially collapsed, or someone from the residents broke the wall of the mine without permission to increase the kitchen area. To test, open the windows and once again lean the sheet against the grid. If the thrust is still missing, the problem is really in the mine. To clean or restore it, you must submit an application to the competent organization. If there is a thrust, you will have to install an intake fan, since hermetic windows prevent the movement of air.
Air exchange in apartment buildings is carried out in three ways:
- Natural involves the use of thrust, which creates a pressure drop in the ventilation shafts. Its action is described above.
- Combined uses either forced air supply and its natural exit through the shaft, or air flow through windows, air vents, slots and outflow with the help of fans built into the exhaust holes.
- Forced system involves the installation of both types of fans - supply and exhaust. This ventilation can be autonomous and centralized.
Autonomous type assumes the work of an exhaust fan at the entrance to the mine on the facade of the building. Air can also flow through the inlet valves.
The centralized type is a ventilation chamber with inlet and exhaust installations. This system works constantly.
The simplest system of kitchen ventilation consists of an exhaust hood, an air duct and a return valve. First, calculate the required exhaust power. To do this, remember the multiplication table. Or pick up a calculator:
- multiply the kitchen area and the ceiling height;
- the resulting number is multiplied by 12;
- add 30% to the resulting figure, or simply multiply by 1.3;
- The result is an approximate draw power.
Air ducts are rarely straightforward, and as gases move through them, some of the power is lost, so 30% is added to the figure.
How to choose a hood?
Now we go to choose a hood. By way of installation, the hoods are divided into:
- Embedded. As the name implies, the hood is built into the kitchen furniture, only the grill remains outside. This type fits easily into the design of any kitchen.
- Wall mounted. Fasten to the wall above the stove. Extracts of this type appeared the very first, and are still in great demand and are available in a huge assortment.
- Island Suspended from the ceiling and most suitable for kitchens with an island.
- Suspended. Fastened between wall cupboard and stove.
Also hoods can be divided by the principle of work. Flow-through remove the polluted air into the mine, and the circulation does not connect to the duct system, they clean the air with special filters. The most effective are flow hoods.
Installation of ventilation in the kitchen
Most likely you chose a flow-through ventilation system, and in the store you were offered a duct and a non-return valve in the exhaust hood kit, and at the same time they explained that the valve does not allow air to flow from the mine to the apartment. If there is no traction in your apartment, purchase an intake valve. Now it remains to install it correctly.
The intake valve is usually placed between the radiator and the sill. Structurally, it is made so that the air in it is partially purified from dust particles. To install the valve should be drilled in the wall hole with a diameter of 60-70 mm. You need to drill with a slight downward slope so that moisture does not get into the room from the street. In the finished hole you need to insert a piece of pipe of suitable diameter. The length of the pipe exceeds the width of the wall by about 12 mm. Install the pipe protruding part of the room. If there is free space between the wall and the tube, it should be sealed with mounting foam. Next, we fix the box from the kit to the wall, insert noise-absorbing material into it, which should also be included and close the top lid.
One valve is designed to provide one person with fresh air, so if there are several people living in the apartment and the windows are air-tight, you should install such a device in each room.
We provided fresh air to the kitchen. Now you need to organize the outflow of contaminated, and to do this, connect exhaust fans in the bathroom and kitchen.
In the toilet, it is most convenient to do the exhaust using a switch with two keys, when one key turns on the light and the other one - the fan. This scheme can be complicated and connected to the fan timer, which can be programmed at any time. This connection is convenient for the toilet and bathroom. The fan will turn on simultaneously with the light and turn off after a certain time. Even more convenient, although more expensive, is the design with motion and humidity sensors. Then the whole system will work automatically. Installing a motion sensor will be convenient in the toilet, then the fan will be triggered by a signal from the sensor, and turn off after a specified period of time. The humidity sensor is suitable for the bathroom, then the fan will work until the humidity drops to the desired value. With this sensor, you can forget about the appearance of mold and long-drying laundry in the bathroom.
To do this, you need to install the hood and connect it to the ventilation shaft of the house and to the electrical network.
Installation of the hood is simple. A detailed description of it is necessarily present in the instructions. The distance from the gas stove to the hood must be at least 90 cm, from the electric cooker - 70 cm. Next, you need to connect the hood to the duct. It can be plastic or corrugated metal. The latter is best removed in a special box. Then the design of the kitchen will not suffer.
If the apartment has two ventilation ducts, the hood is connected to one, then the second works as natural ventilation. If the channel is one, which is often the case in panel houses, you should buy a special adapter, which has a grille for natural ventilation. The exhaust duct is connected to its upper part. The disadvantage of this method is that when the hood is turned on, an excessive pressure is created and a part of the exhaust air can be thrown back into the apartment. To reduce this effect by buying a grille with a special protrusion in the lower part of the round hole for the duct. This protrusion already in the channel directs the exhaust air upwards, preventing it from entering back.
There is a more reliable way to preserve natural ventilation - install a special tee before entering the ventilation channel. Two outlets are used to connect the air duct and the ventilation duct, and the third is equipped with a check valve. It prevents the penetration of polluted air into the room. It works like this: when the hood is turned on - the valve closes and the kitchen chad does not get back into the kitchen. When the hood is turned off, the valve is open and supports natural ventilation. Ventilation in the kitchen with a gas stove must necessarily preserve the natural continuous current of air. Otherwise, it may be dangerous to use gas.
Ventilation in the kitchen in a private house
For arrangement of ventilation in the kitchen of a private house there are several limitations that should be considered when connecting a gas stove and hood. In the kitchen should be:
- ceilings at least 2.2 meters in height;
- at least one window with an opening window;
- vertical exhaust duct.
Also, the documents regulate the required air exchange rate. For a gas stove, ventilation is considered effective at a speed of 140 cubic meters per hour.