It's no secret that the perfect repair starts with flat walls. Such walls are easy to paint, whiten, cover with wallpaper and fabric. A room with even walls seems larger, taller, freer and sometimes even lighter.
If earlier it took weeks to level the walls and special skills were required, then today almost everyone can perform this procedure. Enough to stock up on modern construction tools and materials, as well as a large margin of patience.
Alignment of the walls: types
To date, there are two of the most well-known ways of giving a smooth surface to horizontal and vertical planes: dry and wet. The dry method involves the use of drywall sheets. So the walls are sewn into durable and smooth plasterboard structures that can be immediately covered with decorative trim. Undoubtedly, this method is economically more profitable, but also less attractive in terms of preserving the area. In some old houses, plasterboard walls "eat up" up to 10 cm of room space.
Wet works are carried out using special gypsum or cement mortars, which are applied to the walls and, after drying, create a flat surface. The solution can be prepared (purchased at a hardware store) or prepared on site (it is important to keep the correct proportions).
Before you learn how to plaster walls with a wet method, it is important to deal with building materials that will be useful to you in the process. For example, depending on the material from which the beacons are made, there are three main types:
- wooden beacons - today almost never used, but have the lowest cost and reusability;
- metal profiles are the most popular in modern construction, however, they have several disadvantages: they rust even from minor damages, it is impossible to use it twice;
- plastic options - made from the most durable plastic and have a high price.
The average length of beacons is 3 meters, and the width is 6-10 millimeters. The number of profiles used is based on the area of the plastered surface.
Varieties of plaster
In addition to selecting the required beacon profiles, you should also pay attention to the composition of the mortar that you intend to apply to the walls. There are the following varieties:
- lime mortar is suitable for dry and warm rooms, has a long service life;
- Gypsum - considered the most environmentally friendly composition, dries quickly, tolerates temperature drops and exposure to high humidity, is easy to apply;
- Cement mortar is most often used as a solid foundation for the next layer of finish, it is characterized by high wear resistance.
Each of these options has its fans and its conditions in which it shows the best qualities. For example, often the choice of mortar depends on the material of the wall itself, on which it is planned to apply plaster.
After reviewing the possible options for building materials, you need to decide on the choice necessary. To do this, you will need to designate the composition of the wall on which you plan to apply a layer of plaster. Depending on the material from which your walls are made, the necessary solution will be selected.
If you have to deal with the finishing of concrete walls, it is better to opt for cement mortar. Plaster walls of cement mortar not only levels the surface, but also makes the leveling coating the most durable.
For brick walls, any type of mortar is suitable, but it should be noted that this surface requires a large layer of plaster. It will be optimal to use the cement composition in combination with sand.
Wooden walls are always plastered only with a mesh made of reinforced steel. The grid acts as a connecting element, creates a strong frame and does not allow plaster to fall off. The walls of wood are usually covered with clay or gypsum plaster, the best option is to use a gypsum-lime mixture.
Strictly speaking, the technology of plaster walls on beacons includes three main stages, the correct observance of which allows in a short time to achieve the desired result:
- Wall preparation;
- Installation of beacons;
- Actually, the very application of plaster.
If you are attracted to plastering the walls with your own hands, and you want to cope with this task as well as professionals, then following the steps presented will allow you to save money and effort, and the result will not take long.
The very first and most important stage in the process of plastering surfaces. Depending on the condition of the base, the further fate of the flattened surface will be determined. That is why the preparation of the walls requires the following actions:
- Visually mark the state of the wall, mark the irregularities, if necessary - use the level;
- Mark the attachment points of beacons - at a distance of 30 cm to the corners and slopes. Divide the rest of the wall into equal parts and also mark fixtures. To determine the horizontal axis of the mount retreat from the ceiling and the floor 18-20 cm;
- Primed the walls. The primer will provide better adhesion to the mortar and will eliminate unnecessary debris.
After the walls are ready, you can proceed directly to the placement of beacons.
Installation of beacons
There are two types of fastening of construction beacons to the surface of the wall: for mortar or for fasteners.
If you decide to place profiles on the solution, then you will need a composition with a high content of cement. Pre-prepared mixture should be thrown on the wall at the intersection of the indicated horizontal and vertical axes, but so that the layer thickness does not exceed the thickness of the lighthouse. Then attach the beacon and strongly push it into the solution. You can strengthen the base with the help of the rule, using it on the sides of the profile.
The considered technology of plaster walls with the help of beacons practically leaves no questions but one, how to create even corners. The inner corner can be formed with the help of an angular spatula or a pipe, which is passed through the beacons. Blunt corners are usually leveled with a wooden lath applied to the beacons.
Now that you know how to plaster the walls with your own forces to a flat surface, you should clarify that there is also a mechanized method of applying plaster. This type of finishing work is usually performed by specialists of a construction company and is most often used in large industrial and public buildings. Of course, the layer of plaster applied in this way will differ from the man-made ideal smoothness, but it will also be thinner, which can not but affect the performance of the coating, despite the obvious advantages of the method.